This double-blind clinical trial study was conducted on 42 obese and overweight individuals (25 < BMI < 35). Participants were selected from those, who referred to a nutrition clinic (Ahvaz, Iran). Participants were screened based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria were lack of physical activity, no smoking, no alcohol drinking, no usage of herbal supplements and vitamins, and lack of weight changes in the last 6 months. Exclusion criteria included pregnancy, breastfeeding, use of drugs that effect metabolism, lipid and glycemic profile, eating disorder, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, kidney problems, thyroid, digestive, respiratory diseases, and cancer. Participants consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine daily (described as caffeine users) were excluded from the study (20). The level of physical activity was assessed weekly by phone. The subjects, who had moderate or various physical activities, were excluded from the study.
A number of studies have been conducted to test the theory that green tea can help with weight loss. It's important to note that most of these studies used green tea extract, not the actual tea. Drinking regular green tea may not help you lose any weight, according to a 2012 clinical study published in Obesity, which compared the effects of drinking regular green tea and a catechin-rich green tea on weight loss in a group of men and women with type 2 diabetes. While the group drinking catechin-rich tea lost a half-pound over the 12-week study period, the group drank a lower-catechin green tea gained half a pound.
The upgrade is a touch steeper than it is for other tracking app upgrades — most run $4–5 per month. But we found that those inexpensive alternatives were chaotically organized and slow to respond, elements that had us avoiding opening them at all. SparkPeople and Lose It! both came with lots of lag time and finicky search bars that made us hesitant to launch the apps, let alone log in three or more times a day.
If you want to sip your way to a faster metabolism, pour yourself a cup of green tea. The beverage is filled with powerful antioxidants that can help fight inflammation, burn fat, and increase energy. According to one study, drinking five cups a day could help you lose twice as much weight, mainly in your midsection. And drinking green tea could also reduce risk of Parkinson's disease, as well as ovarian, colorectal, skin, and prostate cancers.

“Research published in the Journal of Nutrition in 2006 found that the type of DHA omega-3 oil found in salmon may have an ‘anti-obesity effect’ by preventing an increase in fat cells, causing death of pre-fat cells, and promoting the breakdown of fat in the body,” says Maleeff. Not sure how to prepare it? Try any (or all) of these five tasty salmon recipes.
Moreover, asking people to live with chronic hunger by consciously restricting their food intake creates an unresolvable conflict between our evolutionarily ingrained hunger drive (“I’ve gotta eat to survive!”) and our intellectual will to eat less. Growing research also suggests that this unresolvable conflict plays a major role in the development of eating disorders. Yes, we’re making ourselves sick, both psychologically and physiologically, by fighting our instinctual drive to eat when hungry.
One of the most unexpected health benefits of matcha tea, is that drinkers experience a boost of energy throughout the day. In one study, researchers had thought that this was from the caffeine in matcha, but they found that it was actually the combination of matcha’s natural properties. Another recent study found that matcha even improved physical endurance by 24%.

The number of calories you need on a daily basis to lose weight depends on an array of factors, including age, gender, height, genetics, and level of physical activity. Generally, your daily calorie intake shouldn’t fall below 1,200 calories; any less than that threshold can be dangerous in the long-term. Plus, since we get about 20 percent of our fluids from food, this can also increase your risk for dehydration.
Consult your physician and follow all safety instructions before beginning any exercise program or using any supplement or meal replacement product, especially if you have any unique medical conditions or needs. The contents on our website are for informational purposes only, and are not intended to diagnose any medical condition, replace the advice of a healthcare professional, or provide any medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.
At first, Samantha says she hated the bitter taste and had to force herself to drink it. But soon, Samantha was sipping on green tea and lemon every morning. She then began drinking one cup each hour at work and finished off the day with one while watching TV—a total of nine cups of green tea every day. After just one month of this regimen, Samantha dropped nearly 15 pounds.
While not every researcher believes that green (or other) tea drinking is a “magic bullet” for weight loss, every weight loss expert would agree that flooding your system with water or drinking tea versus eating a candy bar or drinking soda can help move the digestion process along quickly and perhaps distract you from munching snacks that aren't healthy. Regardless of whether it's magical or not, it's a good idea.
Steady-state cardio (referred to as simply “cardio” on the weight loss plan below) means you’ll be exercising (e.g. power walking, jogging, running, cycling) at about the same level of intensity for the duration of the workout. Steady-state cardio workouts tend to be longer. Cardiovascular interval training (IT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT), on the other hand, are a shorter workout, but alternate between higher levels of intensity and recovery intervals.  Interval training is a proven technique to massively boost metabolism and torch body fat. HIIT (short bursts of all out exercise e.g. sprinting) is a more intense form of interval training, so beginners should start with regular interval training.
Apples contain pectin, an ingredient that naturally slows digestion and encourages feelings of fullness. Studies show that eating a whole apple with your meal (as opposed to apple juice or applesauce) is a natural appetite suppressant, helping you consume fewer overall calories without feeling deprived. Sass likes using shredded apple in slaws and stir-fry, or mixing them into burger patties to add moisture.
Watercress is jammed full of nutrients, including vitamin B1, B2, B6, C and E, as well as minerals manganese, carotene and potassium. This makes watercress a powerful cleansing agent, improving the digestion and nourishing the skin, while its diuretic properties help to flush out toxins and excess fluids. Watercress is also a fabulous source of iodine, which helps to boost your metabolism, so it makes sense to include it in your diet if you’re striving to achieve a flat stomach.
Also, men tend to lose weight where they need it most (read: belly), so it's often more immediately noticeable when overweight men start trimming down than when women do, as ladies' fat stores are typically more spread out, which is partly why they tend to lose weight at a slower pace than guys. Even basic, regular exercise -- ideally 30 to 60 minutes a day -- tends to reduce abdominal obesity, even if guys don’t technically lose weight.
“Bananas contain a small amount of fiber and resistant starch, which have received recent attention for their potential role in boosting weight loss,” says Ellis. Snacking on bananas is easy, convenient, and low cal. They’re also a great source of potassium, which can be lost in sweat during tough workouts or on hot summer days. Plus they make for nice drinks, like the Jamba Juice Triple Revitalizer with carrot and orange juice.
“A study published in Nutrition Journal found that participants who ate foods high in monounsaturated fats for lunch (in this case, half an avocado) reported a 40 percent decreased desire to eat for hours afterward. Monounsaturated fats from sources like olive oil, nuts and avocados can reduce cholesterol, promote weight loss, even boost memory.” — David Zinczenko, author of the  Zero Belly Cookbook
It can actually help you cut back on calories. That's because capsaicin, a compound found in jalapeno and cayenne peppers, may (slightly) increase your body's release of stress hormones such as adrenaline, which can speed up your ability to burn calories. What's more, eating hot peppers may help slow you down. You're less likely to wolfed down that plate of spicy spaghetti —— and therefore stay more mindful of when you're full. Some great adds: Ginger, turmeric, black pepper, oregano, and jalapenos.
Because they don’t cater to one person’s weird eating habits. They provide a general guide for normal palates. If you don’t like the food, make up your own plan. Or write up a plan for other picky eaters like yourself! Sounds like with the limited amount of food you find acceptable to eat, surely you shouldn’t be overweight. And if you rely on junky snack foods in place of these perfectly healthy AND flavorful options, nobody can help you but yourself. 

When it comes to cravings, protein drinks and bars may also help cure your need for sugar, says Juge. He recommends mixing a flavored protein powder in a blender with as much ice as possible, so it'll taste more like a milkshake. Day Five's protein shake includes a cup of berries, which will also help with sugar cravings. Once or twice per week, Juge adds, you can have a low-sugar, high-protein bar. The newest varieties taste more like candy bars, with state-of-the-art sweetening techniques.
Though we singled out quinoa above, whole grains in general (we’re talking cereal, rice, pasta, and more) are conducive to weight loss, especially when they’re used in place of refined—white—grains. In fact, a study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that substituting whole grains for refined grains in the diet increases calorie loss by reducing calories retained during digestion and speeding up metabolism. Unlike refined grains, whole grains are packed with satiating, heart-healthy fiber.
Acai berries are well known for their anti-oxidant properties, but did you know they're are also rich in essential fatty acids and dietary fibre? The tiny purple fruits can help to speed up digestion and provide more energy – something we all need if we want any hope of hitting the gym after work. Add them to your porridge in the morning or whip up a smoothie bowl for a nutritious snack. Delish!
“Mushrooms’ meaty flavor and texture make them great additions to ground meat dishes such as hamburgers, meatloaf, meatballs, and the like,” Zeratsky says. Because they hold up to cooking, mushrooms can even serve as beef substitutes for vegans and vegetarians. Research has even found subbing out meat with mushrooms for one meal a day can prompt significant weight loss because you’re consuming less fat and fewer calories. “They add flavor and moisture as well as fiber—stretching recipes to make them more economic, lower in calories, and more nutritious,” she adds. 
Blood samples (5 mL) were collected at the beginning and at end of the study during the 12-hour fasting condition. The samples were centrifuged at a low level and serum was separated. Biochemical measurements were performed immediately after sampling. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), triglycerides (TG), and TC were measured by an auto-analyzer (Hitachi, USA). The Friedewald formula was used to calculate LDL levels. Fasting serum insulin concentration was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (Mercodia). The homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) was calculated with the formula: HOMA-IR = [FBS (mg/dL)*FINS (μU/mL)] / 405. (23). Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) was calculated on the basis of suggested formulas: 1 / [log (Insulin μU/mL) + log (Glucose mg/dL)]. (24). The HOMA-B (pancreatic beta cell function) was computed as follow: 20 × FINS (μIU/mL)/fasting glucose (mmol/mL)-3.5. Insulin sensitivity was derived using the formula: HOMA-S (insulin sensitivity) = 22.5/(insulin (mU/L) × glucose (mmol/L)). All biochemical assays were performed in duplicates and the mean was calculated for each subject.
“Use a VersaClimber or take a VersaClimber class. These machines are still not that common, but in my opinion they are far more effective for weight loss than other forms of cardio. They require you to use a large portion of your muscles and it’s functionally better for you than other forms of cardio like spinning. Everyone is talking about Rise Nation in LA at the moment as they are the first dedicated VersaClimbing studio. There’s no harder cardio workout I have tried. To lose fat you have to put in the work. — Dan Roberts, celebrity trainer and creator of Methodology X
See no evil, eat no evil. It’s hard to resist temptation when it comes to foods — so eliminate it instead! Keep your cabinets and refrigerator stocked with fresh, healthy snacks so they’re front and center. One trick I love is washing fresh fruits and veggies as soon as I get home from the store and storing them in glass or nice bowls on the counter or refrigerator shelf. It keeps them visible so you remember to eat them!

In the first chapter the author doesn't take long to start body shaming people. In the section of how obesity is measured the author tells you that if you have unequal distribution of fats, if you have a protruding tummy or bulging thighs it can make you look unattractive. Gee, thanks for the judgement there. Let's keep it to the facts and not the attractiveness opinions of others. Really, another person's opinion of how attractive I am based on my body shape is not a good measurement of obesity.
EXcuses should be excised. Do you really want to lose weight and improve your health once and for all? Then stop making excuses and just do it! Sure, that's easier said than done. But you need to stop finding reasons why you can't start moving a healthier lifestyle, and start listing all the reasons why you should. Don't put it off until tomorrow. Start today, by doing something positive -- just one small thing -- toward your health and weight loss.
One basic reason may be on account of caffeine is a stimulant. This implies it will give more sharpness and can expand your stamina, both of which can help the power and length of exercises. A portion of the investigations, notwithstanding, demonstrate that the green tea helps consume calories while very still too, which implies that notwithstanding when you are not sweating at the rec center, green tea may enable you to get in shape.
We're now into a section about attitude. Yes! The right attitude can help you lose weight, however all of the generalizations about "most obese people." I'm really getting sick of being lumped into this arbitrary generalization. Really, again, where is the research that shows that most obese people think this and do this. Is it really most? Sorry, but everyone I know knows how freaking hard it is and we're sick of people telling us what we think. Really, it's not the problem. We know it's hard, we know we're eating the wrong stuff, we know we don't exercise enough. Stop putting words in our mouths, your assumptions are just another reason we're not motivated to lose weight...again completely counter to what the book promises when it says this book will motivate you. Um, no shaming and putting words in my mouth doesn't really motivate.
Beans can help boost feelings of fullness and manage blood sugar levels, making them an excellent ally in your weight loss battle. In fact, a recent study published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found eating one serving a day of beans, peas, chickpeas or lentils could contribute to modest weight loss. And if you need another reason to bulk up on beans, remember that the fiber and protein-rich legumes are other excellent sources of genistein—the same compound found in peanuts and lentils that aids weight loss.
Another condiment worth utilizing in place of sugary dressings and marinades is apple cider vinegar. According to a study published in Bioscience, Biotechnology, & Biochemistry, consuming apple cider vinegar each day can lead to weight loss, reduced belly fat, waist circumference, and lower blood triglycerides. More specifically, the study of obese Japanese participants found that those who consumed 1 tablespoon of ACV over a three month period lost 2.6 pounds, and those who consumed 2 tablespoons lost 3.7 pounds in the same time frame. Go ahead and toss a tablespoon or two of this calorie, fat, and sugar-free stuff in your next salad dressing, sauce, or smoothie.

Once again, a popular weight loss myth has been exploded. It has been widely believed that weight loss, which is nearly always difficult to maintain, is even less likely to stay lost if it is the product of a rapid weight loss. The belief is even enshrined in current guidelines. Now a study published in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology provides no support for this belief. Instead, the study suggests that although long-term weight loss remains elusive regardless of the diet, short-term weight loss is actually more likely with rapid weight loss.
Why are we still bleating on about this, no one cares! I don't know one person who will be watching lol... Andrew and Fergie may think they are something special, just because they are royal, but the rest of us couldn't care less. The only thing that most of us care about is the fact YET AGAIN we are footing the bill for minor royals! Why should we keep paying? There are people in this country who have been saving for years, to get married...
Although white potatoes offer some potassium and fiber, sweet potatoes reign supreme in the nutrition department, meaning you should consider adding sweet potatoes to your diet. A large sweet potato contains around 4 grams of satiety-boosting protein, 25 percent of the day’s belly-filling fiber, and 11 times the recommended daily intake of vitamin A. What’s more? It’s less than 200 calories.
To prep his patients for success, Dr. Seltzer tells them to plan around a large evening meal by eating a lighter breakfast and lunch—NBD since most people who eat a meal before bed tend to wake up feeling relatively full, he says. Research suggests balanced bedtime meals may also promote steady next-day blood sugar levels, which also helps with appetite regulation.

Even green tea’s caffeine level contributes to weight loss. Drinking green tea every day makes weight loss simple because the caffeine it contains acts as a stimulant that improves exercise performance and aids fat burning in the process. While each cup contains just a quarter of the caffeine of a cup of coffee, it is still enough to give you a boost. It does not take much to begin feeling the benefits, as most people start noticing results after about three cups a day.
One easy trick if you're a pasta fan is to swap out white pasta for the wonderfully named courgetti (spaghetti made from spiralizing courgette). You’ll hardly notice the difference when you’re eating it, but you’ll be fuller for longer despite consuming fewer calories. When you consume fewer calories, your body can go to your fat reserves for energy, rather than just burning off the food you’ve eaten.  

“Anytime you’re stressed, you probably go for food,” Dr. Seltzer says. (Have we met?!) That’s because cortisol, the stress hormone, stokes your appetite for sugary, fatty foods. No wonder it’s associated with higher body weight, according to a 2007 Obesity study that quantified chronic stress exposure by looking at cortisol concentrations in more than 2,000 adults’ hair.


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Look for breads that say 100% whole wheat to make sure you getting the real deal. Ann Kulze, MD, of Charleston, S.C., author of Dr. Ann’s 10-Step Diet, A Simple Plan for Permanent Weight Loss & Lifelong Vitality, also recommends incorporating beans such as soy, lentil, chickpeas, and black beans into your diet. “They are high in fiber and protein so they’ll keep you full longer,” Kulze says.
Ceviche is a wonderful lean protein source found on many Mexican menus throughout the summer months, and it’s easy to make at home, says Sharon Richter, a registered dietitian in New York City. Depending on what type of fish is used, ceviche can range between 120-175 calories per serving. (And word has it that Lady Gaga fuels up on ceviche while on tour).
Delicious, full of antioxidants, AND they help you to lose weight? Tomatoes are definitely among our favourite fat-fighting foods. Tomatoes have been found to reduce inflammation and water retention in the body, as well as reversing leptin resistance. Leptin is a type of protein which helps to regulate metabolic rate and appetite, so our bodies rely on it to shed those extra pounds.

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Salmon is a rich source of high-quality protein and provides plenty of "good" fats: omega-3 fatty acids. A diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids helped people feel more satisfied when they were watching their calories, per a study in Appetite. Eating salmon can be a delicious and versatile way to get your recommended two weekly servings of heart-healthy fish.
While Matcha originates from Japan, the first of its kind attempt has been made to manufacture it in Assam, India. Matcha specific clones are grown with great care, and then manufactured in a fully automated plant under the supervision of Japanese brewmasters. A bold step taken by the Chota Tingri estate in Upper Assam, it sure looks like the gamble has paid off. For we now have our own Indian Matcha.
Why this easy fitness plan works: It's common for people who exercise regularly to do the same routine week after week. If you do the same exercises at the same intensity all the time you'll get the same results. Your body hits a plateau. This plan increases your activity level without added stress or strain to your joints. So you burn more calories without taxing your body.
I just read your piece on weight loss rated rapid vs slow and steady. I am a veteran with decades of experience. I have successfully lost 143 pounds in 2001 with what is known as the vlcd program. I spent from March 31,2001 until November of 2001 with 700 calories average daily intake. I came out at a healthy weight but not mentally prepared to deal with the aftermath of a completely morphed body image. I could not wrap my brain around what had transpired in 6 short months. I still saw the 333 pound woman when I looked in the mirror. I still caught myself looking in the plus sized clothing section. There are as many factors that cause morbid obesity as there are programs offering the “cure”
“The best thing you can do for your belly is to give up processed foods. A study in the journal Food Nutrition Research found that our bodies burn only 50 percent as many calories digesting processed foods as they do real foods. So it’s like eating twice as much, even if the calories are the same!” — Mark Langowski, celebrity trainer and author of  Eat This, Not That! for Abs
You know carrots are good for you, but did you know that purple carrots are even better? “Purple carrots contain all of the phytochemicals found in orange carrots, and they also contain anthocyanins, which are potent antioxidants,” says Dr. Robert Rey, a Beverly Hills plastic surgeon, reality TV star of Dr. 90210, and author of Body by Rey.This sweet, crunchy snack is loaded with powerful anti-aging properties and protects against damage caused by oxidation (free radicals).

If you watch TV often, you've probably seen a commercial pop up for Jenny Craig. When you do the diet, you receive a unique weight loss plan for your specific lifestyle and have a personal consultant to check in with at least once a week. And, the meals are delicious: There are more than 100 menu items to choose from for your meals, which are five a day plus one snack of your own. 

There's a pretty dizzying amount of research backing up this regime as a solid option to enhance your health, lower cholesterol, and encourage healthy, lasting weight loss. DASH (the acronym stands for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) has you loading up on fruits, vegetables, and whole grains (surprise!) and removing foods high in saturated fat from your diet. Research also shows that this diet may even ward off the onset of type 2 diabetes. 

How would you like to take all the great weight-loss results you’ve just read about—and double them? That’s what happens when you supplement your diet with a combination of vitamin D and calcium, according to a Nutrition Journal study. Just four weeks into the 12-week experiment, subjects who had taken these two nutrients—found in abundance in some yogurts—lost two times more fat than the other group! To get similar results at home, start your day with one of these Best Brand-Name Yogurts for Weight Loss.

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“A study by David Jenkins, MD, PhD—the University of Toronto pioneer in low-glycemic eating — demonstrates that eating small portions at frequent intervals is good for your health in a number of remarkable ways. Within the study, they found that people who ate every three hours reduced their blood cholesterol by over 15% and their blood insulin by almost 28%. That’s key, because in addition to regulating your blood sugar level, insulin plays a pivotal role in fat metabolism, inflammation and the progression to metabolic syndrome. When your body produces less insulin, you’re much less likely to convert dietary calories into body fat.
“Before you begin to change your diet, spend a week recording everything you eat—and I mean everything. Before I made any changes to my diet, I journaled everything I ate each day for a week, including little things like gum or breath mints. If you have a piece of candy from your coworker’s desk, snag a few spoonfuls of your boyfriend’s ice cream, or finish the few bits of grilled cheese your kid left on her plate, write it down! It all adds up, and you just don’t realize how much you’re eating until you actually see it all on paper in front of you. I, for one, was stunned.” — Maria Menounos, author of  The Everygirl’s Guide to Diet and Fitness, on how she lost 40 pounds
We pulled the top 14 of the best commercial diets (marketed to the public for profit) and the top 12 of the best diets overall. We also threw five of the most popular diet apps into the mix. Since these are largely tracking devices that don’t espouse unique eating habits, they don’t appear to meet US News’ definition of diet, but are still potentially effective weight loss tools.
The customized support and abundant resources come at a price. This varies based on the intensity of your weight loss goals; we paid $60 per month. (We made an account before purchasing and received a 50% off offer by email to incentivize our membership. Tease them in the same way and see if you get the same deal.) If you want to get a look at all these perks before you purchase, you can try Noom free for 14 days.
Another aspect of her death that really got to me was that she had heart problems, and heart disease was something that ran in my family. Since I was overweight, I realized I was putting myself at risk. I mean, she had triple bypass surgery when I was in the third grade and had been in and out of hospitals ever since. It really made me realize that I needed to get serious about my health. 

Yogurt used to be thought of as health food. Now it lines the grocery shelves in a variety of forms. It's portable, convenient, full of nutrients like calcium and protein, and it makes an excellent snack or mini-meal. The French swear by it, and so should you. Low-fat yogurt is filling and nutritious, but keep in mind that it can be loaded with sugar. So read labels to make the best choice.


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For breakfast, for example, dress up your oatmeal with berries, leave off the butter and margarine, and maybe even increase the amount of water you use to cook it. Yet another strategy not used in this study but validated in others would be to replace calorie-dense brown sugar or maple syrup with Splenda or sugar-free maple syrup, which would further reduce the calorie density of this breakfast entrée.
The difference in body composition (muscle loss and dehydration), metabolic effects, and the return of weight has been reported (9, 10). In a meta-analysis study, weight return had been reported in most participants (77%), who followed WL diets (11). In a classification of diets based on calorie restrictions and speed of WL, diets are divided to rapid WL, moderate WL, and slow WL.
The average American consumes approximately 15.5 pounds of pasta each year—and most of it is the refined white stuff. Unfortunately, this type of noodle is usually void of fiber and micronutrients. Spaghetti squash, on the other hand, boasts only about 40 calories per cup—more than 75 percent fewer calories than a cup of plain pasta—and is an excellent source of vitamin A and potassium. Make this simple swap to jumpstart your weight loss and you’ll be fitting into your skinny jeans in no time! For more swaps to save you calories, don’t miss these 25 Food Swaps That Cut 2,500 Calories a Week.
Before you head out to dinner, pour yourself a cup of green tea. The active ingredient in green tea, EGCG, boosts levels of cholecystokinin, or CCK, a hunger-quelling hormone. In a Swedish study that looked at green tea’s effect on hunger, researchers divided up participants into two groups: One group sipped water with their meal and the other group drank green tea. Not only did tea-sippers report less of a desire to eat their favorite foods (even two hours after sipping the brew), they found those foods to be less satisfying.
No, I’m not talking about fast food … in fact, please cut out ANY fast food, which relies on terrible ingredients and excessive sodium, from your diet. But simply speaking, there are going to be times that you are in a situation where you are in a position to eat something that is usually “off-the-menu” for healthy eating. So, instead of binging on these foods, keep your goals in mind and nibble on smaller amounts.
HIIT stands for high intensity interval training, and it’s a great way to build muscle without spending hours in the gym. The idea is to go all out for a short period of time, followed by a slower pace that allows you to recover. Think of jogging or sprinting all out for 30 seconds, followed by a minute or two of rest, then repeat. Short bursts of high-intensity exercises keep your heart rate up while adding lean muscle. More muscle mass equals calories burned on a daily basis. Also, the more lean muscle you have, the higher your metabolism is.
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